Центральна бібліотека ім.Кропивницького


Brief history of Korabel’niy district

Humans have lived on the land that is now the Korabel’niy district of Nikolayev for millennia. The archeological record is clear; the history, long and rich.

Burial mounds, sometimes called “pyramids of the Ukrainian steppes,” are still visible here. These distinctive landmarks were left by nomadic tribes that moved through the area during the bronze and early iron ages (IX-II centuries BC). Some early people paused along enough to leave not only burial barrows, but also remnants of simple, temporary, settlements - summer camps inhabited while livestock grazed on the region’s verdant grasses. Archeologists who have investigated such sites along the Bug estuary say they are typical of both Cimmerian and Scythian settlements. Later, starting in the fourth and extending to the third century BC, Greeks came here. Remnants of their early settlements can be found near the Sievers beacon and the villages of Luparevo and Limany. During that same period, Slavs began to move into the region.

A.K. Meyer, a 19th century historian (and military officer posted to Kherson), wrote about the instability of the area during medieval times:

In 1233 and 1236, Mongol Tatars under the leadership of Genghis Khan’s sons swept into the Ekaterinoslav region and Ochakov land and ruined a famous Maiden monastery in Vitovka above the Bug. After that, Ochakov land changed hands incessantly. First, the Tatars. Then, the Poles. And then, the Lithuanians when, in 1399, Grand Duke Vladislav took from the Tatars all the country above the Bug.

Vladislav`s successors placed their capital in this region, with a vast garden, and skilful sluices on a sandy site near Vitovka. The great Lithuanian Princes Alexander Vitovt and Bogdan Sventrigell stayed here.
Paraphrased from Meyer’s “Narrative Geodetic and Natural Description of Ochakov Land” (1874)

The settlement built by Lithuanian Grand Duke Vitovt, on land taken from the Tatars by his predecessor Grand Duke Vladislav, included fortifications and a customs house for trade with the Tatars.

The Kyuchuck-Kajnardzhijskiy treaty of 1774 (which ended the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774) gave Vitovka and all other settlements and land between the Dnipro and Southern Bug to Russia.

 

Many outstanding people visited and left their trace on these lands.

During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791, Generalissimo Suvorov sick soldiers at the Vitovsk hospital. Evacuated from Kinburnsk spit, the casualties were treated with local herbs and curative spring water. The world famous epidemiologist D.S.Samojlovich worked here during that period as well.

On May, 25th, 1788 Field-Marshal Kutuzov visited Vitovka in search of a convenient place to cross to the right bank. His goal was to attack Ochakov by storm. The archival record indicates that around that time, commander-in-chief of the Russian army, Prince G.O. Potyomkin, spent several nights in Vitovka, preferring it to Kherson.

Then, in 1789, Potyomkin ordered that Vitovka be renamed Bogoyavlensk in honor of the local old church of the Epiphany. Architect I. Starov was sent from Petersburg to begin drawing up a general plan for Bogoyavlensk. Dutch architect Vikentiy Vanrezant was also actively involved in planning and development of Bogoyavlensk. Rope and sail factories were built, the first Russian school of practical agriculture, directed by professor M.G.Livanov, was founded, and a magnificent State garden with almost 20000 fruit and decorative trees was laid out.

Potyomkin did not live to see his dreams for Bogoyavlensk realized. And though he expressed a desire that his final resting place be here, that too was frustrated. The tsarina ordered his burial at Kherson. Potyomkin’s long-time associate, M. Faleev, petitioned that the body be held only temporarily there and returned to Nikolayev later, after the consecration of a new church. But the petition was to no avail.
A last-minute change of plans, engineered by Ekaterininskiy archbishop Amvrosiy, briefly diverted the funeral procession and allowed a ceremony in a house church of the Prince’s niece Aleksandra Branits’ka.

The earliest archives of the Black Sea Fleet show that Bogoyavlensk (later Nikolayev) was a favorite country residence for the admirals of the Black Sea fleet.

From 1790 until 1861, Bogoyavlensk was the seat of the Admiralty.

After1861, industrial development in Bogoyavlensk created conditions favorable for population growth. Families of Nikolayev ship-building workers and fishermen settled here. Trade and crafts developed. In those days, the Southern Bug was famous by its rich fisheries, including: sturgeon, beluga, sterlet, stellate sturgeon, sazan and many others.

Eventually Bogoyavlensk became a suburb of Nikolayev, and in 1887 it was subordinated to the Kherson administration.

Bogoyavlensk kept its name when the Soviet Government arrived and in 1921 the city became the district center.

In 1938 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Ukrainian SSR supported the request of workers and renamed Bogoyavlensk Oktyabr’skoe.

The Great Patriotic War was an extremely difficult time for the citizens of the region.

The region’s liberation began on March 22nd, 1944, when the 28th Army’s paratroopers arrived. In a key action, on the night of March 26, 1944, a group of 68 volunteer commandos took control of a few port buildings and defended them successfully for two days, through 18 firefights in which 700 enemy soldiers were killed. Every member of that group was honored with the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Their heroism saved the port and prompted the liberation of the city. Eventually, the fascists were defeated.

In post-war years Oktyabr’skoe, as well as the whole country, quickly revived and prospered owing to the honest work of its inhabitants.

The idea of expanding Nikolayev’s borders by annexing nearby settlements is not new. In fact, it was born at the end of the 18th century.

Potyomkin, the founder of Mykolayiv, and M.Faleev, who built it, shared a brave dream to connect the ancient settlement of Bogoyavlensk with the new city of Mykolayiv. It took 200 years for those dreams to be realized. But by the 1970s,
industry had developed so intensively in Oktyabr’skoe, that it was necessary to separately administer agricultural and industrial land.

„ The presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR decrees:
To form such districts in the cities: … Korabel’niy - in the city of Nikolayev …